Historical Evolution of Coolant Chemistry for PWR/VVER Plants: 1960 to Present; Including Basis of the Guidelines


This report describes the historical development of the water chemistry in primary side of the PWR and VVER plants since 1950s up to present. Starting with the first research PWR plants in USA without applying any water chemistry addition of neither alkaline reagent nor hydrogen, lot of fuel performance degradations were experienced in 1950s and 1960s, such as heavy fuel deposits, flow restrictions across the core, reactivity losses and high radiation fields. Even the first AOA indications were experienced in a PWR with low core duty operating without applying water chemistry treatment.